12 size variants of one image. Multiply that with 8. Is there a better and optimized way to scaling images?

By the way, this is a snippet of the tree structure of the JSON response.
I have seen similar things before in websites that are either built by site builder, magazines, and luxury product sites. I can understand the need for resolution but is this the industry standard?
To be honest, I am just curious about the process and how did they come to this decision. I am trying to learn by reverse engineering websites.
Like what’s going through the mind of the back end developers mind? 12 variants for the same image. Does the web designer show the design and the front end guy says “yeah I need twelve different size variants of the same image” something like that?
And the backend developers solution is to store 12 variants of each image in the database? How unusually large the storage must be for a single website. So, what will be the other solution then is to create or resize a mother image to the desired scale based on the API call? So more computation cost.
The reasoning behind this is the question.

What is this kind of web design called?

Here are some examples
I am always super inspired by websites and agencies that do this sort of work, but I’m not really sure what to call it. The only thing I know to call it is “Interactive Web Design/UX” but I’m not sure if there’s any other name for it.
Does anyone know where to find good tutorials/courses for this kind of mixed media webdesign, all these agencies seamlessly mix CSS Canvas and WebGL but I never see anyone teaching this kind of stuff.
Thanks in advance for any leads!

My Optimized Portfolio

Link To Portfolio
Full Disclaimer: The design is not mine, but a fork of someone else’s website. (The content, optimizations and some improvements are mine though)
So, I am no web designer. It’s not that I don’t know HTML or CSS, it’s just that I am not good at designing something from scratch. As a result, my portfolio always used an HTML5 theme from somewhere. My previous design of the portfolio wasn’t exactly “dev” based, and it was difficult displaying my work there. A couple of weeks ago, I came across the site of another developer and really liked the simple design, and after asking him, I forked it and made changes to fit my requirements.
I won’t bore you with the complete details (as I already have written a detailed blog post), but I added a CMS, a custom Static Site Generator (as my requirements were small) and optimized it a lot. (It scores perfectly on lighthouse test, except for the performance which varies from 97-99).
Link To Portfolio
Link to Blog Post detailing the work I did

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